example – small pox, influenza. Some diseases, which are not transmitted from one person to another like, cancer, paralysis, high blood pressure, diabetes, etc, are not contaminated diseases, Some infections caused through water are called water-borne diseases, for example typhoid, jaundice, dysentery, diarrhoes, etc. Some diseases enter into body through air, such as – tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles, influenza, etc. These are called air-borne diseases. Many diseases spread into body by insect bite, such as – dengue fever caused by the bite of female addis mosquito and malaria by the
ne female anopheles mosquito. Pox: Pox is of two types — small pox and chicken pox or water pox. Small pox is not seen now a days. It has been eradicated from the world long time before. But chicken pox is still present. Chicken pox or water pox: Chicken pox or water pox is an air borne infectious disease. This disease infects body by saliva, cough, clothes and beddings of the diseased person and also by air. Remedies:
- Should not come in contact with the infected patients. 2. Should take preventive measures from the flies. 3. Patients are to be kept inside mosquito net. 4. Washing the used clothes of the patient with boiled water mixed with
antiseptics such as-Savlon, Dattol. 5. Incinerating the sputum, saliva and boils of the patient. 6. Patient should be kept in well lighted and ventilated room. 7. Flies must be driven away by spraying phenyle. 8. Adequate facilities of treatment should be provided. 9. Special precautions should be taken during the service provided to the
patients such as – wearing face mask, washing hands and face with soap,
changing of cloth after nursing the patient, etc. Skin diseases: If body and clothes are kept unclean, various skin diseases are caused. Often the dirty from outside blocks the pore of the skin and causes skin diseases. If sweat is not washed properly after playing or working, that may even cause skin infections, like – Psora, Ringworm.
- To maintain neatness and cleanliness of the body and clothes. 2. To wash the used clothes daily with soap/soda/alkali mixed boiled water. 3. Not to use the clothes of the infected person. 4. To give proper treatment to the diseased person. Work 1: Write the names and symptoms of the discares broke out in your locality, during last six months in the following table:
Write down ten remedies of skin diseases (Home work.)
Contagious diseases spreading sources: In class V, you have learnt about the signs, symptoms and spreading sources of diarrhoea, dysentery, chicken pox, small pox, fever. Now we shall learn more in detail about the contagious diseases. The symptoms and spreading sources of contagious diseases have been described below — Influenza: Influenza or common cold are caused by virus. This disease enters into a healthy body by the sneezing and coughing of the infected persons. It may also occur by direct contact such as infected person’s kissing or caressing of the children. The common signs and symptoms are fever, running nose, headache, severe body ache, sore throat and weakness.
Tuberculosis: It is a bacteria-borne disease. Anorexia, weakness, rapid weight loss, fever are the common symptoms. In case of pulmonary tuberculosis, chest pain and cough is seen common. Blood-mixed-sputum may also come out. Vaccination is available for the prevention of this tuberculosis. The bacterium enters into the body by sneezing and coughing of the tubercular infected person. Tubercular infection may also spread by food. Tuberculosis mainly infects lungs. But brain, kidneys, intestine, glands and bones may also be
infected by tuberculosis. Typhoid: Typhoid is a water borne disease namely -ache, headache, high fever,
weakness are the common symptoms. Typhus bacteria stay in the stool of the infected person. When water is contaminated by the infectious stool, it spreads with the drinking of the polluted water. Measles: Measles is a viral disease. Usually infants and children are infected by it. High fever, rashes on mouth, throat and other parts of the body along with running nose, red eye are the common symptoms. This infection spreads by sneezing and coughing. Malaria: Malaria is not a contagious disease. Fever with chill and rigor, headache, respiratory distress, weakness, nausea, diarrhoea are the common symptoms. This infection spreads by anophilies mosquito. Malaria occurs due to the bite of the anophilies mosquito. The mosquito bites a malaria infected person and then afterwards a healthy person thereby transmitting the bacterium to him/her. AIDS: AIDS is a viral disease. The name of the virus is HIV – Human Immune Deficiency Virus. If HIV enters into a body, it gradually destroys the immunity of the body or body protection system. As a result, other diseases easily attack that body. This condition is called AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). Till now there is no treatment available to cope with the disease. HIV may enter into a healthy body by using same syringe or needles, shaving instruments of the infected person, by breast feeding of the HIV infected mother, by blood or other body fluid transmission and by having unprotected sex. Jaundice: Jaundice is a viral disease. When a person is attacked with jaundice, the white portion of the eye, sole of the foot, palm of the hand and urine turn into yellow colour. Pain in abdomen and fever may occur. Loss of taste of food, vomiting may also occur. If the disease becomes severe patient may die. Hepatitis virus remains prese