ends of a single line together in such a way that they will secure something, for example – a bundle of objects or tying up a bandage that is unlikely to be loosened.
Reef knot 2. Clove Hitch: A clove hitch is a type of knot which is effectively used as a crossing knot. To tie a clove hitch at the end of a rope, pass around the pole starting at the right, with the end coming around below. As the end comes around,
Clove Hitch put it under itself to be over the standing end. To start on the left side, the end comes around over the standing end, crossing it by wrapping below and then comes around to go under itself below the standing end. Pull both sides of the loop to tighten. In this way a clove hitch is made. Clove hitch is also used to tie a hook at the end of a thread.
Work : Becoming two groups. The student will demonstrate reef knot and
clove hitch in the class.

  1. Sheet Bend: Make a loop at one side of a thick rope and hold it in your left hand. Now pass a thin rope into the thick rope’s loop down to upward direction. Then twist the thin rope with the thick one and
    Sheet Bend bring the free end up to pass through the underside loop. It is to be noticed that the end of the small line remains above the loop. Then slowly tighten the knot by pulling on free end while holding the standing line to make a sheet bend. Sheet bend is most commonly used for forming a fixed loop, large or small at the end of a line,
    rigging up a sail, tying up rope of a flag with the pole. 4. Bow Line: Hold one end of the line with the right hand, keep the left hand palm up and place a line on it. Pull enough
    Bow Line rope towards you for the desired loop size. Make a small loop with the end of the string in your left hand. Put the end of the string in your right hand through the loop made by your left hand. The end should be coming towards you as it goes through the loop. Take the top loose string in your left hand and all the rest of the string and pull in opposite directions to tighten the hitch.The bow line knot is used to pull up or down in order to rescue someone who falls in a hole or slips down. In the same way this knot is also used to rescue a drowning man.
    Work Demonstrate how to make sheet bend.
    Work, 2: Explain when the bow line is used.
  2. Timber Hitch: Hold the running end of the line in your right hand and attach a single length of rope to a pull or trunk. After giving half hitch or loose knot, it needs at least 5 to 7 twists to form a timber hitch. As the name suggests, this knot is often used by lumbermen and arborists for attaching ropes to pull tree trunks, branches, and logs. 6. Round Turn and Two Half Hitch: Make two twists around a pole or a fixed object with the running part of a rope. After giving two twists, hold two ends of the line with two hands. Give two half hitches on the running part of the line. Tent knots are made in this
    Work-1: Demonstrate the way of round turn and two half knot using 3 meter
    long rape
    First Aid: First aid is a part of medical science. Dr. Frederic Edgemark is the inventor of first aid. He was a German surgeon. He thought that if an accident occurs, the patient needs a primary treatment to stop further deterioration. So, first aid is a treatment given to a patient with whatever things ready at hand before taking him to the hospital. First aid is the primary help or medical assistance that someone gives to the patient so that his condition does not take a serious turn. Primary treatment given to an injured person or a patient is called first aid. First aider to do: First aider will do three things. For example –
  3. Identifying the injury: The first aider will try to identify the causes of
    disease or injury. Disease can be identified by observing its syndromes,
    signs or history. 2. Treatment: Determining the necessity of treatment to stop serious
    deterioration before the doctor’s arrival. 3. Shifting: The patient is to be shifted to a safe place. If it is necessary, the
    patient should be taken to a doctor or hospital.
    Instruments of first aid:
  4. Dressing: First aider gives dressing to the injured person to keep the
    wound germ free. 2. Lint: Lint is a type of cotton cloth used for protecting and covering
    wounds. 3. Pad: Pad is a thick piece of soft material that is used for absorbing liquid
    or protecting something. 4. Splint: Splint is a long piece of wood or metal that is tied to a broken arm or leg to keep it still and in the right position. 5. Bandage: Bandage is used to keep lint, pad or splint in proper place.
    Bandage has two types — a) roller gauze bandage b) triangular bandage. Cut: Hands and legs can get cut by knife, scissors, blade, bill hook, cleaver, etc. First, it needs to identify the place where it is cut or how much it is cut. Then, treatment is to be given as per requirement.
  5. The first aider will wash his hand with soap. Next he will wipe out the
    place of cut with wet cotton or cloth. 2. The surrounding area is to be cleaned with detol, savlon or any other
    antiseptics. 3. For a minor wound, put finger on it and for a fatal wound, hold cotton or
    gauge on it to stop bleeding. Burn: If any part of the body accidentally burns by fire, hot water, flaming substance or hot liquids then wash the burn area with cold water and apply white portion of egg on it. If any blister forms on the affected place, the blister should not be pinched out. Doctor’s advice should be sought immediately. Abrasion: Hit by blunt instruments like hammer, bricks, stones or animal

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